Shortness of breath - of a sick person's feeling of lack of air, accompanied by difficulty breathing act, forcing the patient to breathe more deeply and more frequently. An objective examination of some states and changes the rhythm of breathing. Thus, the notion of objective symptoms includes shortness of breath and a subjective perception of the condition of patients, in some cases leads to diagnostic difficulties.
Some people do not realize that they have developed shortness of breath. At the same time, functional disorders with shortness of breath in the central nervous system (hysteria), the threshold of perception of breathlessness increased with the advent of these cases, "psychogenic or hysterical" shortness of breath. Shortness of breath can reach the degree of dyspnea (patient gasps) and called in this case, asthma (see Choking). Shortness of breath may be expiratory (difficult breathing out), aspiratory (breathing difficult), and mixed. Shortness of breath occurs in many diseases of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, as well as a number of diseases of the central nervous system, development of anemia.
Shortness of breath causes: The immediate causes of shortness of breath may be the following factors:
1) changes in blood gas composition with an increase in carbon dioxide content, oxygen content, blood pH shift toward the acid reaction and the accumulation of unoxidized metabolic products that act directly on the respiratory center;
2) reflex influences coming from the vagus nerve endings in the lung, pleura, diaphragm muscle;
3) diseases of the central nervous system, accompanied by circulatory disturbance and the direct stimulation of the respiratory center (skull trauma, tumors and inflammatory processes in the brain, brain hemorrhage and thrombosis of cerebral vessels);
4) coma (diabetic, uremia, anemic coma), accompanied by the accumulation in the blood of toxic metabolic products that affect the respiratory center;
5) fevers, endocrine disease associated with an increased metabolism;
6) mechanical disturbance of pulmonary ventilation to the development of phenomena of oxygen deficiency (steno sis of the larynx, trachea, major bronchi uncomplicated bronchial asthma attack).
Emergency assistance for shortness of breath:
Emergency care for dyspnea arising from the lung depends on the nature of the disease. When pulmonary embolism carries out activities aimed at maintaining cardiovascular activity, pain relief and restoration of potency of the pulmonary artery. With spontaneous pneumothorax are taking urgent steps to remove air from the pleural cavity and the relief of pain.
Reduction of breathlessness due to oxidative pleurisy, promotes evacuation of the exudates, which should preferably be in the hospital (not more than 500-1000 ml once). If shortness of breath, has arisen in connection with pneumonia or atelectasis, should be introduced subcutaneously 1.2 ml of 10% solution of caffeine, 2 ml Cardamom subcutaneously carry oxygen therapy and treatment of the underlying] the disease.